Installing

This assumes you have partitioned your target drive and formatted your partitions with the necessary filesystems.

Mounting

The first thing before you install the OS is to mount the partitions with the desired layout matching the final system.

First, you need to mount the root partition. Create a mount point for it first:

# mkdir /media/root

Then mount it (assuming /dev/sda2 for root partition):

# mount /dev/sda2 /media/root

Make sure that the root file system’s mount has 755 permissions. If it for some reason does not and instead it’s for example 700, it will result in strange issues when logging in as non-root. The fix for that is easy:

# chmod 755 /media/root

Then you can move on to the other partitions.

UEFI

You will want to mount the EFI System Partition as well. There are several locations, based on your layout. First, let’s assume that the ESP is /dev/sda1.

If you have a dedicated /boot partition (let’s say sda3), mount it first:

# mkdir /media/root/boot
# mount /dev/sda3 /media/root/boot

Regardless, mount the ESP:

# mkdir -p /media/root/boot/efi
# mount /dev/sda1 /media/root/boot/efi

If your ESP and /boot are merged, do this instead:

# mkdir /media/root/boot
# mount /dev/sda1 /media/root/boot

Other partitions

You will also want to mount other physical partitions you are using in the locations where they are going to be. Do keep in mind that for nested mountpoints, always mount parent partitions first.

Installation

There are two ways you can install the system onto a partitioned, mounted drive. One is a local installation, which copies the live system onto the drive (but without live-related bits), the other is a remote installation from the repositories.

Note that local installation is only available when booted from a live ISO image. When installing from another Chimera system, e.g. when booted from an SD card with a device image flashed, you can only perform a network installation.

For both cases, you use the chimera-bootstrap program. The tool supports -h for a help listing.

NOTE: The tool will abort by default if any of the directories within the mounted hierarchy are non-empty. This is a safeguard against doing something wrong, since this is a sensitive operation that handles user data. However, it can also fail in intended scenarios, such as multi-boot setups (pre-existing populated ESP) or if the user wishes to keep their /home intact. In those cases, it is safe to pass the -f flag to force proceed, but please do verify that you are indeed using the correct destination when using this flag.

Local installation

To perform a local installation with chimera-bootstrap, the -l option is required. Invoke it like this:

# chimera-bootstrap -l /media/root

Network installation

This is the default mode. By default, base-full will be installed into the root; you can override this by passing a custom list of packages after the root filesystem argument.

# chimera-bootstrap /media/root

You can technically perform this from any booted Chimera system, as the chimera-install-scripts are a part of any base installation.

Prepare the system

Regardless of the installation method you choose, you will need to open a shell in the target system to install updates, possibly other packages you need to boot, and the bootloader.

The chimera-chroot tool exists to simplify that task for you. It will mount the pseudo-filesystems for the session as well as ensure you have network access inside.

# chimera-chroot /media/root

First, update the system. If installing from the network, this might not do anything.

# apk update
# apk upgrade --available

If apk update fails, make sure your system date/time is set to a correct value. Incorrectly configured date/time can result in HTTPS certificate errors. If the date/time is indeed wrong, you can set it with the date command:

# date YYYYMMDDHHmm

Replace the value with the current date/time, typically in UTC, as you do not have a timezone set yet.

If you run into any other errors, such as conflicting packages overwriting each other’s files, don’t worry; just fix it:

# apk fix

After that, try again and there should be no more errors:

# apk upgrade --available

At this point you might also want to enable the contrib repository if you plan to install software from there (which there is a good chance you will):

# apk add chimera-repo-contrib

And refresh indexes again to make it propagate:

# apk update

Device base package

For devices that would use device images, a special base package is needed.

For example, for Raspberry Pi:

# apk add base-rpi

For Pinebook Pro:

# apk add base-pbp

And so on. The format is always base-PLATFORM, with a list of platforms available here.

A lot of the device packages are in the contrib repo.

The base packages for U-Boot devices come with a default kernel command line in /etc/u-boot-cmdline. This contains a pre-defined root= parameter that is suitable for the default partitioning as shipped with the device images. This will not work with custom partition layouts, for example when using LVM/LUKS or when your partition label is different, and it’s only present so that U-Boot configuration can be generated statically without executing code in the target root, so you can remove it (the U-Boot menu generator will figure out the root from the current configuration).

This needs to be done before installing the kernel.

Kernel installation

If you performed a local installation from the live image, it already comes with a kernel.

Otherwise you might have to add it:

# apk add linux-lts

If you wish to use ZFS, add that too:

# apk add linux-lts-zfs-bin

This typically refers to the latest Long Term Support version of the Linux kernel. If you’d like to use the latest stable version of the kernel instead, for example if LTS is missing some functionality or driver that is important to you, you can install linux-stable instead:

# apk add linux-stable

Likewise, you can add linux-stable-zfs-bin for binary ZFS modules.

Device-specific kernel may sometimes be needed. For example for Raspberry Pi, you will want to use linux-rpi instead of the above (ZFS modules likewise exist for it). Chimera typically avoids shipping device-specific kernels though, so they are rare in the repositories.

Fstab

Strictly speaking, a Chimera system does not need /etc/fstab to boot. Having an entry for the root filesystem is optional and you might not have any other filesystems. However, it is recommended that you have a proper fstab, with which you can control mount flags as well as fsck behavior or e.g. whether the root filesystem is mounted read-only.

The installation scripts come with a fstab generator. You can invoke it like:

# genfstab / > /etc/fstab

It is also possible to invoke it from the outside of the system, e.g. like:

# genfstab /media/root > /media/root/etc/fstab

You might want to manually edit the generated fstab to remove useless mount options and so on.

If you have a swap partition and you want it automatically included in the fstab, activate the swap partition before generating it. Otherwise, you can also include it manually.

The default fstab that comes with the system does not contain any entries.

An example /etc/fstab for a root partition and ESP may look like this:

UUID=... / ext4 defaults 0 1
UUID=... /boot/efi vfat defaults 0 2

It is not necessary to add entries for pseudo-filesystems such as the /proc or /sys mounts. If you want to have read-only / partition you will also have to add a tmpfs entry for /tmp, as the directory needs to be globally writable. On other systems, you do not need such entry and /tmp does not need to be a mount (it will be periodically cleaned).

In general the order of the rows should be root filesystem first and other filesystems after that, as they are mounted in that order and parent mounts need to be mounted first.

The first column identifies the device. It is recommended that you always use unique paths such as UUID=... or PARTUUID=... (using alias paths such as /dev/disk/by-partuuid or /dev/disk/by-uuid will work as well), as names such as /dev/sda may change. For encrypted devices, you will want to use the /dev/mapper paths, e.g. /dev/mapper/crypt-root.

The second column is the mount point. The entries should be specified in an order so that parent mounts come first.

The third column specifies the file system, and the fourth column contains the mount options for it.

The fifth column should usually be 0 and relates to dump(8). The sixth column specifies the order for fsck(8). Normally the root filesystem should specify 1 and other filesystems should specify 2.

If the root filesystem is not specified in fstab, Chimera will mount it as if it was specified with defaults, and will fsck it as if the sixth column was 1.

For more information, see fstab(5).

Other packages

You can install whichever other packages you like.

Root password

Set your root password here, or you will not be able to log in:

# passwd root

Serial login prompt (getty)

This only applies to you if you wish to have console access over the serial port (often the case on embedded devices and servers, but typically not normal desktop computers).

While the live image autodetects this and lets you log in over serial terminal, the final system does not, and will only by default enable graphical getty.

You need to know which serial tty is yours; often this will be something like /dev/ttyS0, but could be anything else, like /dev/ttyAMA0, /dev/ttySIF0, and others.

Create the file /etc/default/agetty that contains something like the following:

EXTRA_GETTYS="/dev/ttyS0"

Note that this will only work if the corresponding service exists, for example /etc/dinit.d/agetty-ttyS0. Chimera ships with pre-made service files for many serial consoles. However, the characteristics and device may differ a lot, so it might not be exhaustive.

If the baud rate or other parameters need tweaking, you can copy them from the live system (e.g. /etc/default/agetty-ttyS0), as the live autodetection generates a configuration file if necessary.

Initramfs refresh

A bootable system will typically need an initramfs image. You need to create one near the end, but before generating your bootloader config, as the bootloader needs to be aware of it.

Therefore, best do that now:

# update-initramfs -c -k all

GRUB

GRUB is a common bootloader that works on more or less every platform that Chimera supports. If you wish to use a different way to boot your system, or you can’t use GRUB (e.g. for U-Boot devices, Raspberry Pis, and so on), skip this section.

First you will need to add it.

Example for x86 BIOS:

# apk add grub-i386-pc

Example for x86_64 EFI:

# apk add grub-x86_64-efi

Example for a POWER virtual machine, Power Mac or PowerVM hardware:

# apk add grub-powerpc-ieee1275

On a PowerNV machine with Petitboot, you do not need any low level bootloader as the machine comes with one, so just add grub. On other platforms, there are more choices, e.g. grub-arm64-efi, grub-i386-coreboot, grub-i386-efi, grub-riscv64-efi, grub-x86_64-xen.

The installation will differ slightly depending on the platform. For example for BIOS systems:

# grub-install /dev/sda

On OpenPOWER systems (which use Petitboot), you will not install the bootloader but instead you need to create the directory for the config:

# mkdir /boot/grub

On POWER systems with a PReP partition:

# grub-install /dev/sda1

On Power Macs it’s a little more complicated (and needs hfsutils):

# mkdir -p /boot/macppc
# mount -t hfs /dev/sda2 /boot/macppc
# grub-install --macppc-directory=/boot/macppc /dev/sda2
# umount /boot/macppc
# rmdir /boot/macppc
# hmount /dev/sda2
# hattrib -t tbxi -c UNIX :System:Library:CoreServices:BootX
# hattrib -b :System:Library:CoreServices
# humount

On EFI systems with separate ESP:

# mkdir -p /boot/efi
# mount /dev/sda1 /boot/efi
# grub-install --efi-directory=/boot/efi

And so on. You will want --target=x86_64-efi as well if installing EFI on x86_64 while booted in BIOS mode.

If you do not want GRUB to alter firmware boot entries, --no-nvram can be passed. Additionally, certain EFI firmwares are buggy and require a bootable file at a known location before they show any NVRAM entries. In this case the system may not boot. This does not affect most systems, but if you have a board with such buggy firmware, you can pass the --removable flag to work around it.

Without using --removable, a similar workaround will also work:

# mv /boot/efi/EFI/chimera /boot/efi/EFI/BOOT
# mv /boot/efi/EFI/BOOT/grubx64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/BOOT/BOOTX64.EFI

On Power Macs it is recommended to turn off graphical GRUB, which can be done by uncommenting GRUB_TERMINAL_OUTPUT=console in /etc/default/grub. You may also want to add GRUB_DISABLE_OS_PROBER=true to prevent GRUB from scanning other drives (which slows down the config generation).

In any case, you will want to generate a GRUB configuration file on all platforms:

# update-grub

U-Boot

For devices using U-Boot, it is needed to flash it:

# install-u-boot /dev/mmcblk0

The whole target device needs to be passed, not a partition.

After that, you might want to refresh the menu entries just in case:

# update-u-boot

If your partitioning is somehow special, double-check whether /boot/extlinux.conf contains the correct root= parameter, in case you forgot to remove the pre-defined one.

Raspberry Pi

No special setup is necessary for booting on Raspberry Pi, except possibly for tweaking the cmdline (/boot/cmdline.txt) to reflect your partition and filesystem layout. If your filesystem (not partition) is labeled root, no changes should be necessary.

Other post-installation tasks

At this point, the system should be capable of booting on its own.

If you wish, you can perform other post-installation tasks here, or you can do so after you have booted into the system.

Either way, proceed to Post-installation.